(June 3 - July 2)
Course Title/Number: PRM 447 Research and Evaluation in Parks and Recreation Management
Semester Offered: Spring & Summer
Instructor: Charles Hammersley, Ph.D.
Office Address: Parks and Recreation Management Program, PO Box 15016, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5018
Phone: (928) 523-6655 Fax: (928) 523-2275
Office Hours: Hours available by appointment.
Course Prerequisites: STA 270 Applied Statistics
Course Description: Empirical research methods used in leisure service delivery programs; how to chose and apply selective research methods and software packages; design, collection and analysis of information; program evaluation; reporting results; interpreting research literature.
Henderson, K. A. & Bialeschki, M. D. (2010). Evaluating Leisure Services: Making Enlightened Decisions (3rd ed.).State College, PA: Venture Publishing. ISBN: 1-892132-88-5
Suggested Reference Text:
|Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN-10: 14338-0561-8 (pbk)|
On-line Textbook Ordering Options: The book citation and ISBN number are provided above. You may use the NAU Bookstore or any on-line book service, several are listed below for your convenience (these are not endorsed by the course facilitator). Please be sure to order your texts well in advance of the class date to be sure you have it in time.
NAU Policy Statements; and
Classroom Civility Statement
Course Objectives: ( Competency Areas): Having successfully completed this course you will:
Understanding of and the ability to analyze programs, services, and resources in relationship to participation requirements (NRPA 8.20)
|Understanding of procedures and techniques for assessment of leisure needs (NRPA 8.21)|
|Knowledge of the purpose, basic procedures and interpretation, and application of research and evaluation methodology related to leisure services (NRPA 8.24)|
|Ability to apply computer and statistical techniques to assessment, planning and evaluation processes (NRPA 8.25)|
|Understanding of principals and procedures for evaluation of leisure programs and services. (NRPA 8.26)|
formulate, plan for implementation, and evaluate to which goals and
objectives for the leisure services and for groups and individuals within
the service have been met (NRPA 8.27).|
Additional Course Competencies:
|Have been exposed to key concepts of research and understand how they can be used in the tourism and leisure sciences professions;|
|Recognize and correctly use basic terminology of research;|
|Understand and be able to explain the interaction and connections among research design, data collection methods, sampling, and measurement;|
|Understand and be able to demonstrate how to use various types of research designs (naturalistic, case-study, correlational, differential, quasi-experimental and experimental) in recreation and tourism research;|
|Have an awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of the following data capturing techniques, commonly used in social sciences: unobtrusive measures (physical traces/archives), observation, individual survey techniques (mail, telephone, face-to-face interview), group survey techniques (nominal group, delphi, focus groups) and others as time permits.|
|Be able to produce simple, but technically robust, research reports and proposals.|
|Be able to read, interpret, review, and critique research articles, publications and reports. And|
|Be able to understand the nature and limitations of data and their use in making and supporting professional judgements.|
Unit 1 - Criteria: Foundations for Evaluation and Research
|Introduction to Criteria|
|The Basic Question|
|Evaluation and Research|
|The Trilogy of Evaluation and Research: Criteria, Evidence, and Judgement|
|You Don't Count if You Don't Count|
|Approaches to Evaluation: Models and More|
|Those Who Fail to Plan, Plan to Fail: The Five P's of Evaluation|
|From Good to Great: Evaluating Program Quality and Participants|
|Like Sands Through an Hourglass: Timing of Evaluation|
|Designing Evaluation and Research Projects|
|To Be or Not to Be: Competencies and the Art of Systematic Inquiry|
|Doing the Right Thing: Political, Legal, Ethical, and Moral Issues|
Unit 2 - Evidence: Data Collection
|Introduction to Evidence|
|Qualitative and Quantitative Data: Choices to Make|
|Choosing Designs and Methods: The Big Picture|
|Trustworthiness: the Sine Qua Non of Data Collection|
|What are the Chances? Choosing a Sample|
|Choosing the Right Stuff: Measurement Instruments|
|On Your Own Again: Developing Measurement Instruments|
|Surveys: The Winner of the Popularity Contest|
|Surveys: Administering Questionnaires and Conducting Telephone Interviews|
|Surveys: Talking About Personal and Group Interviewing|
|Electronic Surveys: The Wave of the Present and the Future|
|Observations: On a Clear day You Can See Forever|
|Unobtrusive Methods: Oddball Approaches|
|Experimental Designs: Focusing on Control and Interventions|
|Specific Applications to Recreation: The More the Merrier|
|Triangulation or Mixed Modes: Drawing on al the Tools|
|People Aren't All the Same: Considerations for Data Collection|
Unit 3 - Evidence: Data Analysis
|Introduction to Data Analysis|
|Data According to Measurement|
|Getting Your Data Together: Organizing and Coding|
|Univariate Statistical Analyses: Describing What Is|
|The Word on Statistical Significance and Its Meaning|
|Inferential Statistics: The Plot Thickens|
|Hurray for Computers and Data Analyses|
|Qualitative Data Analysis and the Interpretation: Exploring the What, How, and Why|
Unit 4 - Judgment: Data Reporting
|Introduction to Judgment|
|Using Visuals: A Picture is Worth 1,000 Words|
|Developing Conclusions and Recommendations|
|Report Writing: Saving a Paper Trail|
|Oral Presentations: Telling the Tale|
|Evaluating Projects and Studies: Pitfalls and Problems|
|Using Evaluations and Research for Decision Making|
Use of Statistical Packages
|SAS - JUMP|
Course Requirements & Grading Basis:
To Calculate your Grade:
1) Add the three test grades; then divide that number by 3; then multiply that number by .3;
2) Add the five assignment grades; then divide that number by 5; then
multiply that number by .25;
3) Multiply the Research Project grade by .45;
4) Add the numbers from step 1, step 2 and step 3 to get your numerical grade.
5) See the information below (Grading Basis) for converting your numerical grade to a letter grade.
Grading Basis: Grades will be assigned as:
90 – 100 = A; 80 – 89 = B; 70 – 79 = C; 60 – 69 = D; less than 59 = F
Important Note: Any breech of the NAU Academic Dishonesty Policy (See Student handbook) will result in the offending student receiving an "F" in the course.
Important Note: No assignments or tests will be
accepted after their due dates. All
assignments and tests must be submitted by midnight on their due date.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Agnew, N. M. and Pyke, S.W. (1987). The science game - An introduction to research in the social sciences (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Babbie, E. R. (1983). The practice of social research (3rd ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.
Bailey, K. D. (1987). Methods of social research (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press, a Division of MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc..
Blalock Jr., H. M. (1982). Conceptualization and measurement in the social sciences. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.
Dilllman, D. A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys - The total design method. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York. John Wiley & Sons.
DeVelfis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Applied Social Research Methods Series (Vol. 26). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc..
Krueger, R. A. (1988). Focus groups - A practical guide for applied research. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications
Loffand, J. and Lofland, L.H. (1984). Analyzing social settings - A guide to qualitative observation and analysis. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Mitra, A. (2011). Needs Assessment: A Systematic Approach to Data Collection. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park California: Sage Publications, Inc.,
Riddick, C.C. & Russell, R.V. (1999). Evaluative Research in Recreation, Park, and Sport Settings: Searching for useful information. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing
Riddick, C.C. & Russell, R.V. (2008). Research in Recreation, Parks, Sport, and Tourism (2nd ed). Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing
Ritchie, J. R. and Goeldner, C.R. (1987). Travel, tourism, and hospitality research. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Rossi P. H., and Freeman, H.E. (1989). Evaluation : A systematic approach. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Shadish, W. R., Jr., Cook, T. D. and Leviton, L.C. (1991). Foundations of program evaluation. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Scheaffer, R. L., Mendenhall, W. and Ott, L. (1986). Elementary survey sampling. Boston. PWS Publishers
Siegel, S. and Castellan, N.J., Jr. (1988). Nonparmetric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York. McGraw Book Company
Stainback, S. & Stainback, W. (1988). Understanding and conducting qualitative research. Dubuque, IA: Kendal/Hunt,
Strauss A. and Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Stewart, D. W. & Shamdasani, P. N. (1990). Focus groups - Theory and practice. Applied Social Research Methods Series (Vol. 20). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Yin, R. K. (1989). Case study research. Applied Social Research Methods Series (Vol. 5). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Statistical Software List
U.S. Census Bureau
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